form of Passive

Form of Passive
         Subject  +  finite form of to be  + Past Participle
Example: A letter was written.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:
Firstly you should identify the main component of the active sentence
 ( the subject   , the verb    and     the object )
       We                   saw              the accident     
* the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence                                                                       يتحول المفعول الى فاعل نبدا به الجملة
* the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
نضع    مصرفا فى زمن الفعل الاصلى بما يلائم المبتدأ الجديد ثم نضع التصريف الثالث للفعل الاصلى أا   
* the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

اذا دعت الضرورة لذكر الفاعل يوضع فى نهاية الجملة على هيئة مفعول
Examples of Passive
Tense
Subject
Verb
Object
Simple Present
Active:
Shayma
writes
a letter.
Passive:
A letter
is written
by Shayma
Simple Past
Active:
Shayma
wrote
a letter.
Passive:
A letter
was written
by Shayma
Present Perfect
Active:
Shayma
has written
a letter.
Passive:
A letter
has been written
by Shayma
Future I
Active:
Shayma
will write
a letter.
Passive:
A letter
will be written
by Shayma
With modal verbs
Active:
Shayma
can write
a letter.
Passive:
A letter
can be written
by Shayma
Present Progressive
Active:
Shayam
is writing
a letter.
Passive:
A letter
is being written
by Shayma
Past Progressive
Active:
Shayma
was writing
a letter.
Passive:
A letter
was being written
by Shayma
Past Perfect
Active:
Shayma
had written
a letter.
Passive:
A letter
had been written
by Shayma
Future II
Active:
Shayma
will have written
a letter.
Passive:
A letter
will have been written
by Shayma
Conditional I
Active:
Shayma
would write
a letter.
Passive:
A letter
would be written
by Shayma
Conditional II
Active:
Shayma
would have written
a letter.
Passive:
A letter
would have been written
by Shayma
Advertisements

The Mask of Gold Chapter 2

Chapter Two 
The Man on the Plane
Vocabulary
connecting flight
رحلة طيران غير متصلة
definite
محدد
valley
وادي
Be based in
مقيم فى
boarded
على متن (طائرة)
treatment
معاملة
paintings
رسومات
In –flight – magazine
مجلة الطائرة
ِcurious
قلق فضولى
UNESCO
منظمة الأمم المتحدة للثقافة والعلوم والآداب
ًٌflight attendant
المضيف
sight
مشهد – منظر
skyscrapers
ناطحات السحاب
sleeves
أكمام
briefcase
الحقيبة / شنطة اوراق
Keen on
شغوف ب
mid-thirties
منتصف الثلاثينات
Let ….through
يدع000 يمر
pocket
جيب
Terminal building
مبنى الركاب
ٍsun-tanned face
وجه لوحته الشمس
customs
الجمارك
movie
فيلم
Italian institute of Archaeology
المعهد الايطالي للآثار
sleeves
أكمام
degree
درجة علميه
yawn
يتثاءب
breath in a sign of relief
يتنفس الصعداء
outdoors
خارج المنزل
similarities
أوجه التشابه
thick
سميك
wave
موجة
mining engineer
مهندس (تعدين )
take up
ٓnod
أومأ برأسه موافقا  
assistant
مساعد
copper
النحاس
treatment
معالجة
grip
يحكم قبضته على شيء
pretend
يتظاهر
ٌsilver
الفضة
fair hair
شعر أشقر
perfect landing
هبوط جيد
bump
مطب هوائي
ُmine
منجم
accent
لكنه
immigration
هجرة
project
مشروع
dig
يحفر
Questions & Answers
1. Where was Leila going?
– She was going to Lima ,the capital city of Peru , to help Dr Hafez in his excavation.
2. Why did she go to New York?
– As there was no direct flight from Cairo to Lima, she had to change planes in New York.
3. Why did she have to stay at a hotel at the airport?
– Because the flight to Lima would be the following day.
4. Why did Leila insist on having a seat next to the window?
– Because she wanted to have a look of the skyscrapers and the tall buildings in New York.
5. Who was the man sitting next to Leila?
He was Martin Lander.
He was in his mid-thirties. He had fair hair. He had sun-tanned face. He said that he was a mining engineer. He said also that he always looked for places of interesting things.
6. Leila deduced that Martin Lander was not a businessman. Comment.
– She thought he was not a businessperson as he had a sun-tanned face. Accordingly, she thought that he worked in the open air out doors for a long time.
7. Why did Leila go to Peru?
– She went there to help Dr. Hafez in his excavation, as it was a part of UNESCO exchange program.
8. Leila deduced that Martin Lander was not American. Discuss.
– He has a strange accent so he must not have been American; she thought that he was German.
9. What was Martin’s nationality?
– He held two nationalities. He was American by passport and South African by birthplace.
10. Why did Leila decide to be an archaeologist?
– She wanted to follow the footsteps of Dr. Hafez, as she admired him. He was her old family friend who always told them about his excavation and showed pictures of his discoveries.
11. Where did she learn archaeology?
– She learnt in the Italian Institute of Archaeology in Rome.
12. Why did Leila learn in Italy?
– Because she thought that people might say that Dr. Hafez gave her a special treatment.
13. What did they find in Luxor?
– They discovered the tomb of Sennofer in the Valley of Nobles. They found a tomb where there were old writings, paintings of birds and animals and jewels.
14. Why did Leila suspect Martin Lander?
– At first, she realized that he was asking her a lot. So she decided not tell him any more and to sleep. When she opened her eyes, she found that Martin was looking for some thing in her seat pocket.
15. How did Lander justify his critical situation?
– He informed her that he was looking for the in-flight magazine.
16. Why was Leila late in the Customs?
– Because the officers there wanted to look at every thing Leila had; specially the Laser-dating machine.
17. Who was waiting for Leila at Lima?
– Dr. Hafez was waiting for her.
18. Where did Dr Hafez think he had met Martin Lander before?
– Dr. Hafez thought he had seen him in Machu Picchu area in Peru.
19. Why didn’t Martin want to continue the conversation with Dr Hafez?
– Martin didn’t want to continue in order not to be discovered.
– He tried to mislead Dr Hafez saying that he was a mining engineer not an archaeologist. Then he directly left.

Vocabulary

 مفردات هامة فى اللغه الانجليزيه ( لسؤال الترجمة )  – نقلا عن موقع الثانوية العامة
*عقبات obstacles
*عائق     hindrance
*ثوره  revolution
*طفره  breakthrough
*تنظيم الاسره family planning
*تحديد النسل birth control
*الاستثمار investment
*المستثمرون investors
*مستوى المعيشه the standard of living
*مزابا merits = advantages
*عيوب demerits = disadvantages
*الأمان  safety
*الأمن  security
*الدخل القومى  national income
*اثار  monuments
*تكلفه المعيشه  the cost of living
*تقاليد  traditions
*عادات (جماعيه)  customs
*وزاره السياحه  the Ministry of Tourism
*يحتوى على  contain
*رأس المال  capital
*الأنشطه المدرسيه  school activities
*تلوث  pollution / contamination
*يدمر destroy
*دمار destruction *مدمر destructive
*ممارسه practice / practising
* معرض القاهره للكتاب the Cairo Book Fair
*يتغلب على  overcome
*يؤثر على  affect
*يؤثر تأثيرا سيئا على have/ has a bad effect on
*فى كل الميادين /المجالات in all fields
*صادرات exports *يصدر export *مصدر exporter
*واردات imports* يستورد import*مستورد importer
*تسهيلات facilities
*قنبله نوويه  nuclear bomb
*على نطاق واسع on a wide scale
*فى مقابل  in return for
*حقوق الانسان human rights
*يسود / يعم  prevail
*اقتصاد economy  * اقتصادى  economic
*كفاح / نضال / يناضل  struggle
*الخصخصه  privatization
*جهل  ignorance
*الاميه  illiteracy
*إستصلاح  reclamation
*ازمه  crisis
*وسيله  means
*انجازات  achievements* ينجز/ يحقق  achieve
*جذاب  attractive
*سياسه policy *علم السياسه politics
*مساحات شاسعه vast areas
*مؤتمر  conference
*يتخلص من  get rid of
*الدول الناميه  developing countries
*الدول المتقدمه  developed countries
*المواطنون الصالحون  good citizens
*السلام الدائم  everlasting peace
*التعايش السلمى  peaceful co-existence
*المواطنه  citizenship
*الصداقه  friendship
*يقضى على / يمحو  eliminate / stamp out
*يحرز تقدم هائل  make great progress
*يستفيد من make use of / benefit from
*يحسن استغلال  make good use of
*يستغل خير استغلال  make the best use of
*دون جدوى  in vain
*موارد  resources * مصادر  sources
*التعاون cooperation * يتعاون cooperate
*فضائل virtues * رزائل vices* اثام / خطايا sins
*يستغنى عن do without/ go without/ dispense with
*فى حاجه ماسه الى  in bad need of
*الدول المحبه للسلام peace-loving nations
*شريان الحياه  the artery of life
*الأمم المتحده  the United  Nations
*السبيل الوحيد ل the only way to
*بمعزل عن  apart from
*القرن 21  the twenty-first century
*لا جدوى من It is no use
*يتصدى ل  stand against
*نقد بناء constructive criticism
*الانانيه selfishness *الايثار unselfishness
*الاديان السماويه  heavenly religions
*تدعو الى call for * يناشد call upon* دعوه call
*الحضاره civilization
*الثقافه culture *مثقف  cultured
*الزراعه agriculture* زراعى agricultural
*الصناعه industry *صناعى industrial
  • مصدر رئيسى ل  a chief source of
*تعمير reconstruction
*يضاعف الجهود double efforts
*يمهد الطريق pave the way
*لصالح  for the good of
*المرأه العامله the working woman
*يسعى الى seek to
*يزدهر  flourish
*ريفى  rural
* حضرى  urban
* كبارى علويه fly-over bridges
* اراده قويه  a strong will
 يلعب دور هام فى play an important role in
* تقف على قدم المساواه مع stand on equal footing with    
*يحتفل ب celebrate * يضحى ب sacrifice
*ينعم ب enjoy  * الدعم  subsidy
*ينبغى علينا ان نبذل قصارى جهدنا لكى We must do our best to
* إحتكار  monopoly * يحتكر monopolize
*شعار slogan / motto
* مأوى shelter
*  متطلبات  requirements * يتطلب require
*يحفز motivate * تحفيز /دفع motivation
*قيم values * ذو قيمه valuable
* يستحق ثمنه good value for money
* جزء لا يتجزء من part and parcel of
*يطلق سراح  set….. free * يجرر free/ liberate
*نصر / إنتصار victory* هزيمه defeat
*يؤسس / يشيد set up / establish / erect / found
*ماعدا / سوى except
*حروب اهليه civil wars
* الهويه الوطنيه  national identity
*ساعات الذروه rush hours
*يوزع distribute  * توزيع distribution
* كفاءه efficiency
*النهضه  renaissance
*قدوه  role-model
* مثالى  ideal
* دستور constitution
* يساير / يواكب / يلحق ب catch up with/ keep up with
*تكنولوجيا  technology
* الهجره immigration
* غير شرعى/ غير قانونى  illegal
*يعوض make up for / compensate
*نسبه percentage / ratio
* عقلى / عقلانى  rational 
* ترشيد الاستهلاك rationalizing consumption
*متفائل optimistic   * متشائم  pessimistic
*الثقه بالنفس self-confidence
*واثق فى نفسه self-confident
*الاعتماد على النفس / الاسقلال independence
*الاعتماد على النفس self-dependence
*مستقل / معتمد على نفسه independent
*الثقافه الغربيه the Western Culture
*سمات / خصائص characteristics
*متحد united *مفككك disunited  *وحده unity
*رمز symbol
* بدنى physical  * عقلى  mental
*فوائد benefits
*التسامح tolerance * متسامح  tolerant
* نبذ العنف rejecting violence
*المككتبات العامه public libraries
*يفوق عددا  outnumber
*مجاعه starvation / famine
*الجحود / نكران الجميل ingratitude
* ناكر الجميل / جاحد ungrateful
*العرفات بالجميل / الامتنان  gratitude
*معترف بالجميل grateful
* يركز على focus on
*تركيز concentration  *يركز concentrate
*يستصلح reclaim *استصلاح reclamation
الغزل والنسيج spinning and weaving
* إحتياطات precautions * حذر cautious
* دور العباده  houses of worship*يعبد worship
*مبادره initiative
*يستغل exploit  * إستغلال exploitation
* متاح / متوفر available
*رخاء prosperity
* رفاهيه welfare
* مبدع creative * ابداع creativity / innovation
*وسائل المواصلات means of transport
*الخجل shyness   * خجول shy
*الرعايه الطبيه medical care
* السياحه العلاجيه curative tourism
*مفكرين thinkers / intellectuals
* أدباء men of letters / الأدب literature
*أدبى literary  * علمى scientific
*ينجو survive * ناجون survivors
*يوفر ..ل provide … for/ provide (someone) with
*بترول / نفط petroleum / oil   
* كوارث طبييعيه  natural disasters
* زلزال earthquake * بركان volcano * سيول torrents
*فيضان flood  * اعصارhurricane * ضباب fog
*شبوره mist*التلوث البيئى the environmental pollution
*منقرض extinct * ينقرض die out
*ثروه wealth * ثرى wealthy
*يغزو invade * غزو invasion/ conquest   
*يقهر conquer *يحتل occupy *احتلال occupation
* إنسان ألى robot* معدات equipment *اجهزه sets
  • أجهزه كهربائيه electric appliances
* اسطوره legend / myth
*معاهده سلام peace treaty
*القوات المسلحه the armed forces
* الأمه العربيه  the Arab Nation
* شهداء martyrs * لاجئون refugees 
*ينتخب elect  * انتخاب election
*دبابه tank  * اسلحه weapons*صراع conflict
*الإستقرار stability
*مرحله الطفوله childhood* مرحله اللعبplayhood
*فحوصات طبيه medical check-ups
*يهمل neglect * اهمال negligence
*سلبى negative * ايجابى positive
*تنميه / تطور development *ينمى develop
*الشعور بالانتماء the sense of belonging
*جرائم الحرب war crimes *مجرم criminal
*مفاوضات negotiations* يتفاوض negotiate
*مصير / قدر fate / destiny
* تفرقه عنصريه racial discrimination
* كرم الضيافه hospitality * مضياف hospitable
*منحه دراسيه scholarship
*مستقبل باهر bright future
*يفخر ب take pride in/ (be) proud of
*مبادئ principles * حريه freedom / liberty
*يزيد الانتاج increase production
* مجتمع منتج a productive society
* تدهور deterioration *يتدهور deteriorate
*الأزمه الاقتصاديه the economic crisis

باقى استلة القصة الاولى

Quotations
*
Read the following quotations and answer the questions:
  1-“You are the doctor, I suppose.”
a) To whom did Augustus say this statement?
Pokewhistle to the visitor.
b) What was that man?
He was a man from the furniture shop.
c) By whom did Augustus think that man was sent?
By some interfering so-called friends.
————————————————————————-
2-“..It is of no importance to you if a clever young man should take to his bed at the height of his youth, never to rise again.”
a) Why did Augustus believe that the visitor would not care for him?
As he was one of the uncaring public.
b) What made Augustus take that decision at the height of his youth?
As he failed to get money out of his work. He became disheartened.
c) When did Augustus rise from bed?
When the visitor placed him on thecarpet.
————————————————————————–
3-So, I gave up the struggle. My heart was broken and I determined to take to my bed.”
a) Who was the speaker?
• –Augustus .
b) What did the speaker struggle for?
• –Earning his living by selling his drawings.
c) Why did he give up the struggle?
Because he became more and more hopeless.
————————————————————————–
4- “..But I suppose you have been sent here by some interfering so called friend of mine to save me from my suffering.”
a) What was Augustus suffering from?
He couldn’t get any money from his work.
b) What does this quotation show about Augustus’s character?
He wasn’t a nice person to be a friend.
c) By whom was the visitor really sent to Augustus?
The owner of a furniture shop.
————————————————————————–
 5- “May I mention that there is a certain repetition in your remarks
a) Who was the speaker, to whom?
Augustus Pokewhistle to the visitor.
b) What did the speaker mean by saying so?
He meant that he wanted to finish thestory of his life first without being interrupted. c) Did the spoken to give the speaker the chance to speak? Why?
No, because he was thinking of himself. He wanted to finish his speech first and the others listen.
—————————————————————————————
6-“Nobody came to have their pictures painted, and I had no desire to paint anymore of myself”
a) who was the speaker, to whom
visitor Augustus PokeWhistle to his.
b) Why couldn’t he sell his drawings?
Because he wasn’t a gifted artist insisting on drawing pictures of his own face.
c) Was it possible for him to give up his career? Why?
No, it was impossible. Because he found real pleasure in doing this.
————————————————————————–
 7-“At the age of seven, I won a prize for a drawing of an animal.”

a)What did Augustus intend that drawing to represent?                                         

  The sunset over London.
b) What did Augustus’s parents do as a result of his getting the prize?
They gave him an opportunity to study under great painters.
c) To what extent was Augustus a good artist?
In fact ,he wasn’t a good artist.
————————————————————————–
8- “At the age of twenty-one, I started business as a painter of people“.
a) What pictures did he paint at the age of twenty-one?
Pictures of his own face.
b) Where could the visitor see them? why?
On the walls of his setting room as no one wanted to buy them.
c) What did he decide to paint when painting people did not succeed?
Painting the country
 ——————————————————————
More Questions
Read the following Quotations then answer the questions :
1- “If I had had the soul of a true artist, I would have died rather than do such thing.”
a) What thing would a true artist never do?
b) Why was the writer obliged to do that thing?
c) Did he succeed in doing it?
————————————————————————————————-
2-“I soon found that selling one’s soul for money is not so easy as it sounds”
a) How did the writer sell his soul?
b) Why wasn’t easy for him to do so?
c) What did he gain in return?
———————————————————————————————–
3- “I had often heard the expression “funny enough to make the cat laugh”.
a)How did he try to make the cat laugh?
b) Why did he do so?
c) What happened to the cat?
—————————————————————————–
 4-“Remember that I was without hope and almost hungry, so don’t think of me too severely.”
a) Who to whom?
b) Why would the listener think of the speaker so severely?
c) Why did the speaker do so?
———————————————————————————————
5-“So I gave up the struggle. My heart was broken
a) Why did Augustus give up the struggle?
b) What was his last decision?
c) What made the stranger sure that the decision wouldn’t be carried out?
————————————————————————-
 6-“You are one of the uncaring public?
a) What does this statement reflect referring to Augustus’s character?
b) What does the word You refer to?
c) What was Augustus’s attitude towards the strange comer?
——————————————————————————
 7-“It’s kind of you to come, but I don’t think you can help me”
a)Why did the speaker think that he can’t be helped?
b) How did the speaker misunderstand the issue?
c) What was the comer thought to be?
Mr.Zakaria 
*************

A useful skill in English is to be able to tell a story or an anecdoteحكاية . Anecdotes are short stories about something that happened to you or to someone you know.

How to start
Traditional stories often start with the phrase “Once upon a time”. However, if you are going to tell your story after someone else has already spoken, you can say something like:
That reminds me!
Funny you should say that. Did I ever tell you about…
Hearing your story reminds me of when…
Something similar happened to me….

How to tell your story
First of all, your story should be quite short. Try to keep it grammatically simple as well, so that it is easy to follow.
Make it easy for the listener to understand by using sequencing and linking words:
Sequencing words
These words show the chronological sequence of events.

First of all, I (packed my suitcase)
Secondly, I …. (made sure I had all my documents)
Previously (before that) ….. I changed some money.
Then… I (called a taxi for the airport)
Later (on)… (when we were stuck in traffic, I realised…)
But before al that… (I had double checked my reservation)
Finally… (I arrived at the wrong check-in desk at the wrong airport for a flight that didn’t go until the next day)

Linking words
Use these words to link your ideas for the listener.  Linking words
can be used to show reason, result, contrasting information, additional information, and to summarise.
I booked a flight because….
As a result, I was late…
Although I had a reservation, I hadn’t checked the airport name.
I made sure I had an up-to-date passport and I also took along my driving licence.
In short, I had made a complete mess of the holiday.

Tenses
We can use a variety of tenses to tell stories and anecdotes. Jokes are often in the present tense:
A man walks into a bar and orders a beer.
We also use the present tense to give a dramatic narrative effect:
The year is 1066. In medieval England people are worried that the king, Harold, is not strong enough to fight off a Norman invasion.
However, we generally use past formsto talk about past events. If you tell your story in chronological order, you can use the past simple:
I double checked my reservation. I packed my suitcase, and then I called a taxi.
Use the past continuous to describe activities in progress at the time of your story, or to describe the background.
The sun was shining and it was a beautiful day. We were driving along the motorway quite steadily until we suddenly saw in front of us the warning lights to slow down. We were heading towards a huge tailback.
Sometimes, you might want to avoid telling your story as one chronological event after the other. You can use the past perfect (simple and continuous) to add more interest to your story by talking about events that happened before the events in your story:
I double checked my reservation, which I had made three days previously.
I wanted to visit some friends who had been living in France for the last five years.
Vocabulary
Try to use a wide range of words to make your story more interesting. Remember that you can “exaggerate” when you tell a story, so instead of using words like “nice” or “bad”, experiment with more interesting words, such as “beautiful”, “fabulous”, “wonderful”, “horrible”, “awful” or “terrible”.
Finally – remember that you are telling a story – not giving a lecture. Look at the people listening, and try to “involve” them in the story or anecdote. Keep eye contact, use the right intonation and try to make your face expressive. You might also want to try practising a few anecdotes in the mirror before “going live”. Have fun!
  http://www.english-at-home.com/grammar/linking-words/
  Linking wordsالرابط التالى  

Connectors الروابط

 Grammar                     Connectors
Connectors are words which join sentences or phrases to help us to understand the meaning of the sentences better.
1-    Time connectors
Whenعندما / beforeقبل / afterبعد / sinceمنذ / whileبينما /duringاثناء /as soon asبمجرد ان / untilحتى
– I was watching the match on TV when the phone rang.
-We passed by Tanta before we arrived in Cairo.
-After he had finished his homework, he played a computer game.
-I’ve been playing football since I was eight.
-While I was watching the match on TV, the phone rang.
-During watching the match, the phone rang.
-I telephoned him as soon as I had finished work.
-He couldn’t speak until he was nine.
      2-To show similar and contrasting ideas.
And و / as long asطالما   / butلكن   / howeverومع ذلك although رغم ان /though / even though / as well as / besides بجانب / In addition to   بالاضافة الى/despite برغم/
 in spite of / Not only …but also / not only ..as well
-I wrote a letter and sent it to the company.
-As long as he plays well ,he can join the national team
-I don’t like spinach all all, but my wife does.
-I don’t have much time for hobbies. However, I enjoy photography.
-Although the test was so long, it didn’t take her much time.
-Though I spent a lot of money. I didn’t got what I want.
-He plays football even though he’s over 50
-Please take out your books as well asnotebooks to write
-Besides writing e-mails ,I phoned many of my friends in the feast
-Can you do Exercise C In addition to the Translation in Exercise G.
-Despite his illness, he passed the exam.
-In spite of his illness, he passed the exam.
-Not only I like the way he speaks, but also his character
-Not only have you got top marks for English, you’ve got high marks in French as well .
         3-To show purpose                       ل او لكى
in order that /  To / not to / the purpose of /the purpose behind/ For / so that/ in order to / in order not to / so as to / so as not to
-The purpose behind Martin’s visiting his aunt was to thank her .
-He went shopping to buy some food.
-He went to England in order to improve his English.
-The purpose of Thomas’s leaving early was to attend the meeting .
-We sleep early so that we can get up early      (present)
-He took the cow to the village market so thathe could sell it.   ( past )
(The student is so clever that he can answer all the difficult questions)
                                 فى الجملة السابقة تختلف كليا فهى تعنى لدرجة ان.
-Why did you brake suddenly? So as not to hit that child
.
                 4-To show reasonلبيان السبب       
         Because لان / because of بسبب/due to / owing to /   as /since بما ان
 -She wasn’t at the meeting because she was ill
-Because there was too much sugar in the tea, I couldn’t drink it.   
-Because of bad weather they canceled the trip.
-Due to the bad weather they canceled the trip.
-They canceled the trip owing to the bad weather
-The doctor does not smoke as he is very clever.
 -Sinceyou want to go. We shall go, too.
                5- To show result نتيجة ل          
    As a  result كنتيجة لذلك      /   So   /  therefore لذلك    /consequently       
-It is raining hard outside.As a result you cannot go out.
 -It was raining heavily, so we decided to stay at home.
-Our population is increasing; therefore we need to reclaim more Land.
-It rained heavily last night .Consequently, the streets are all wet.
                6-To show different possibilities لبيان تعدد الاحتمالات
   either …or  اما 00او / neither …. nor لا00 ولا /  only …if     /  unless  ..
-He is either an agent ora sales manager.
 –NeitherTalaat nor Nasser was at the meeting.
 -I’ll onlybuy you a present if you come first
 -I won’t do it unlessyou help me.

                                                                                             from “Papers in Grammar”    by:Zakaria Elshafie