Afghanistan Afghan
Albania Albanian
Algeria Algerian
Andorra Andorran
Angola Angolan
Antigua and Barbuda Antiguans, Barbudans
Argentina Argentine or Argentinean
Armenia Armenian
Australia Australian or
Ozzie or Aussie
Austria Austrian
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani
The Bahamas Bahamian
Bahrain Bahraini
Bangladesh Bangladeshi
Barbados Barbadian or Bajuns
Belarus Belarusian
Belgium Belgian
Belize Belizean
Benin Beninese
Bhutan Bhutanese
Bolivia Bolivian
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Botswana Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Brazil Brazilian
Brunei Bruneian
Bulgaria Bulgarian
Burkina Faso Burkinabe
Burundi Burundian
Cambodia Cambodian
Cameroon Cameroonian
Canada Canadian
Cape Verde Cape Verdian or Cape Verdean
Central African Republic Central African
Chad Chadian
Chile Chilean
China Chinese
Colombia Colombian
Comoros Comoran
Congo, Republic of the Congolese
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congolese
Costa Rica Costa Rican
Cote d’Ivoire Ivorian
Croatia Croat or Croatian
Cuba Cuban
Cyprus Cypriot
Czech Republic Czech
Denmark Dane or Danish
Djibouti Djibouti
Dominica Dominican
Dominican Republic Dominican
East Timor East Timorese
Ecuador Ecuadorean
Egypt Egyptian
El Salvador Salvadoran
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
Eritrea Eritrean
Estonia Estonian
Ethiopia Ethiopian
Fiji Fijian
Finland Finn or Finnish
France French or Frenchman or Frenchwoman
Gabon Gabonese
The Gambia Gambian
Georgia Georgian
Germany German
Ghana Ghanaian
Greece Greek
Grenada Grenadian or Grenadan
Guatemala Guatemalan
Guinea Guinean
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissauan
Guyana Guyanese
Haiti Haitian
Honduras Honduran
Hungary Hungarian
Iceland Icelander
India Indian
Indonesia Indonesian
Iran Iranian
Iraq Iraqi
Ireland Irishman or Irishwoman or Irish
Israel Israeli
Italy Italian
Jamaica Jamaican
Japan Japanese
Jordan Jordanian
Kazakhstan Kazakhstani
Kenya Kenyan
Kiribati I-Kiribati
Korea, North North Korean
Korea, South South Korean
Kuwait Kuwaiti
Kyrgyz Republic Kyrgyz or Kirghiz
Laos Lao or Laotian
Latvia Latvian
Lebanon Lebanese
Lesotho Mosotho (plural Basotho)
Liberia Liberian
Libya Libyan
Liechtenstein Liechtensteiner
Lithuania Lithuanian
Luxembourg Luxembourger
Macedonia Macedonian
Madagascar Malagasy
Malawi Malawian
Malaysia Malaysian
Maldives Maldivan
Mali Malian
Malta Maltese
Marshall Islands Marshallese
Mauritania Mauritanian
Mauritius Mauritian
Mexico Mexican
Federated States of Micronesia Micronesian
Moldova Moldovan
Monaco Monegasque or Monacan
Mongolia Mongolian
Morocco Moroccan
Mozambique Mozambican
Myanmar (Burma) Burmese or Myanmarese
Namibia Namibian
Nauru Nauruan
Nepal Nepalese
Netherlands Netherlander, Dutchman, Dutchwoman, Hollander or Dutch (collective)
New Zealand New Zealander or Kiwi
Nicaragua Nicaraguan
Niger Nigerien
Nigeria Nigerian
Norway Norwegian
Oman Omani
Pakistan Pakistani
Palau Palauan
Panama Panamanian
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinean
Paraguay Paraguayan
Peru Peruvian
Philippines Filipino
Poland Pole or Polish
Portugal Portuguese
Qatar Qatari
Romania Romanian
Russia Russian
Rwanda Rwandan
Saint Kitts and Nevis Kittian and Nevisian
Saint Lucia Saint Lucian
Samoa Samoan
San Marino Sammarinese or San Marinese
Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tomean
Saudi Arabia Saudi or Saudi Arabian
Senegal Senegalese
Serbia and Montenegro Serbian or Montenegrin
Seychelles Seychellois
Sierra Leone Sierra Leonean
Singapore Singaporean
Slovakia Slovak or Slovakian
Slovenia Slovene or Slovenian
Solomon Islands Solomon Islander
Somalia Somali
South Africa South African
Spain Spaniard or Spanish
Sri Lanka Sri Lankan
Sudan Sudanese
Suriname Surinamer
Swaziland Swazi
Sweden Swede or Swedish
Switzerland Swiss
Syria Syrian
Taiwan Taiwanese
Tajikistan Tajik or Tadzhik
Tanzania Tanzanian
Thailand Thai
Togo Togolese
Tonga Tongan
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidadian or Tobagonian
Tunisia Tunisian
Turkey Turk or Turkish
Turkmenistan Turkmen(s)
Tuvalu Tuvaluan
Uganda Ugandan
Ukraine Ukrainian
United Arab Emirates Emirian
United Kingdom Briton or British (collective) (or Englishman or Englishwoman) (or Scot or Scotsman or Scotswoman) (or Welshman or Welshwoman) (or Northern Irishman or Northern Irishwoman or Irish [collective] or Northern Irish [collective])
United States American
Uruguay Uruguayan
Uzbekistan Uzbek or Uzbekistani
Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu
Vatican City (Holy See) none
Venezuela Venezuelan
Vietnam Vietnamese
Yemen Yemeni or Yemenite
Zambia Zambian
Zimbabwe Zimbabwean


How to write an essay
An essay is a literary composition that expresses a certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and Literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are also a test tool used commonly in the social sciences, and even in math and science class. Of course, essays play a big role in the college application process, as well. In short, there are just no avoiding essays, as long as you’re in school!
Luckily, you can learn to craft a great essay if you can follow the standard pattern and write in a clear and organized manner.
The introduction is the first paragraph in your essay, and it should accomplish a few specific goals.
1. Capture the reader’s interest
It’s a good idea to start your essay with a really interesting statement, in order to pique the reader’s interest. Avoid starting out with a boring line like
“In this essay I will explain why traffic jam is really a problem .”
Instead, try something like
“Traffic jam and accidents cost 5ooo lives and 500 million .”
2. Introduce the topic
The next few sentences should explain your first statement, and prepare the reader for your thesis statement.
3. Make a claim or express your opinion in a thesis sentence.
Your thesis sentence should provide your specific assertion and convey clearly your point of view.
The body of the essay will include three paragraphs, each limited to one main idea that supports your thesis. You should state your idea, then back it up with two or three sentences of evidence or examples.
Example of a main idea:
Offer evidence to support this statement:
Include a few more supporting statements with further evidence, then use transition words to lead to the following paragraph.
Sample transition words:
in fact
on the whole
as a result
simply put
for this reason
it follows that
by comparison
The fifth paragraph will be your conclusion.
The final paragraph will summarize your main points and re-assert your main claim. It should point out your main points, but should not repeat specific examples.
Once you complete the first draft of your essay, it’s a good idea to re-visit the thesis statement in your first paragraph. Read your essay to see if it flows well.
You might find that the supporting paragraphs are strong, but they don’t address the exact focus of your thesis. Simply re-write your thesis sentence to fit your body and summary more exactly.
By doing this, you will ensure that every sentence in your essay supports, proves, or reflects your thesis.