Grammar                      Yes, No  question                
و هو السؤال الذى لا يحتوى على أداة استفهام بل يبدأ بفعل مساعد أو فعل ناقص و يكون معناه “هل” و تكون الإجابة عليه بـ “Yes”  أو “No”
-إذا كانت الجملة تحتوى على فعل مساعد مثل verb to be / verb to have  أو فعل ناقص مثل 
will / would / shall / should/ can / could / may / might/ must

نضع الفعل المساعد أو الناقص فى بداية السؤال.
1-  Yes, he is a student.  (Is…..)
-Is he a student?
2-  No, he hasn’t got any brothers.  (Has……….)
-Has he got any brothers?
3-  Yes, I can swim.  (Can….)
-Can you swim?
إذا كان فعل الجملة أساسى نستخدم does  إذا كان الفعل مضارع و ينتهى بـحرف s  و نستخدم  do  إذا كان الفعل مضارع و لا ينتهى بـحرف s  و نستخدم did  إذا كان الفعل ماضى ثم نأتى بمصدر الفعل.
1-  Yes, Ali speaks English.   (Does…..)
-Does Ali speak English?
2-   No, I don’t have a car.  (Do…..)
-Do you have a car?
3-  Yes, I bought a new shirt yesterday.  (Did…..)
-Did you buy a new shirt yesterday?
4-  No, I didn’t watch the match..  (Did…..)
 –  Did you watch the match?
Questions and short answers
Short answer
Are you Egyptian?
Yes, I am.
No, I’m not.
Is he Spanish?
Yes, he is.
No, he isn’t.
Have you read this book?
Yes, I have.
No, I haven’t.
Has he read the magazine?
Yes, he has.
No, he hasn’t.
Do you live in Cairo?
Yes, I do.
No, I don’t.
Does he work at the university?
Yes, he does.
No, he doesn’t.
Can you come to my party?
Yes, I can.
No, I can’t.
Can he swim?
Yes, he can.
No, he can’t.
ملحوظة : إستخدمى الفعل بصيغته الكاملة فى الإثبات و لا تختصرى   
Are you Egyptian?
   Yes, I am.    صح
    Yes, I’m    خطأ
Notice the difference
Do you have a car?                  = Have you got a car?
Does he have a car?                = Has he got a car?
Can you play music?              = Are you able to play music?
Can she play tennis?               = Is she able to play tennis?
What’s your father’s job?        = What does your father do?
Do you come from England?  = Are you English?
Where are you from?              = Where do you come from?

unit 10 vocabulary and structures

Choose the correct answer:
1-    In the morning, orangutans (eat-feed-drink-stay) on fruits and insects,
2-    Most animals have a backbone but (humans-insects-elephants-rabbits) do not.
3-    Polar bears catch (fish-water-dish-animals) through holes in the ice.
4-    (Elephants-Lions-Insects-Ducks) are very large animals which belong to the cat family.
5-    A fish’s tail and (fans-fats-furs-fins) help it to swim.
6-    When it rains, orangutans protect themselves by (holding-catching-carrying-eating) leaves over their heads.
7-    Dogs, cats and rabbits are covered (by-at-of-in) fur.
8-    Birds are covered in (features-feathers-scales-furs).
9-    A (glacier-mountain-sea-river) is a large mass of ice.     
10- Wildlife means animals and plants that live in (artificial-official-natural-professional) conditions. 
11- All environments are home (to-of-at-by) many types of wildlife.
12- Fish are covered in (scales-fins-feathers-hair).
13- A duck (most-more-mostly-less) lives on the water.
14- A (sharp-shark-shriek-shrink) eats animals, fish and people, It can swim.
15- I’m not sure (whether-weather-whatever-unless) this animal can move fast.
16- Many animals have (ended-started-adapted-gone) to life in extreme heat and cold.
17- We do not often see sand cats because they sleep (trees-tunnels-underground-forests).
18- There are (boiling-burning-boil-burn) deserts and there are the high mountains.
19- The high mountains of Sinai are sometimes covered (with-of-from-at) snow.
20- The North Pole has enormous glaciers and (freezing-hot-warm-cold) water.
21- The rainforests of South America and Asia have their (heavy-light-black-rare) rain.
22- One of the animals best adapted to heat is Egypt’s (sand-sandy-desert-mountain) cat.
23- Sand cat is designed (by-with-for-to) desert life.
24- Polar bears live (in-on-under-off) the ice around the North Pole.
25- Sand cats come out to (fish-catch-hunt-shoot) at night, like many other desert animals.
26- Sand cats get all the moisture they need from their (prey-pray-victim-pair).
27- Polar bears are between 2.5 and 4.5 metres long and more than 450 kg in  (weigh-weight-weightless-height).
28- The white fur and thick skin protect polar bears (from-of-by-for) the extreme cold.
29- Polar bears live on fish, which they catch through (balls-calls-halls-holes) in the ice.
30- Polar bears have an incredible sense of (smell-humour-touch-small) and can smell their prey as far as 16 kilometres away.
31- Polar bears can run faster than 50 kilometres (a-the-some-an) hour
32- The rainforests of Borneo, are the (flat-house-building-home) of the orangutans.        
33- Orangutans sleep all night in (nests-houses-homes-buildings) which they make from branches.
34- In the morning, orangutans (feed-eat-stay-leave) on fruits and insects.
35- A (pray-prey-pry-victim) is an animal that is hunted and eaten by another animal.     
36- Many types of (wildlife-midwife-housewife-mild life) live in the rain forests.
37- Sand cats have thick (fur-skin-skill-scale) on their feet to protect them from the hot sand.
38- Polar bears live (at-by-with-on) fish, which they catch through holes in the ice.
39- Polar bears live (off-away-in-by) seals and fish.
40- Many animals have adapted (for-to-from-on) life in extreme heat and cold. 

  1. Exercises on Vocabulary and Language Notes
    1. When fruit or other food (dots – shots – knots – rots), it is too bad to eat.
    2. Scientists can (qualify – modify – clarify – identify) crops by adding or removing certain genes.
    3.  People who do not have enough food to eat may die of (starvation – sanitation – determination – nutrition).
    4.  If you want to grow vegetables, you have to put (deeds – needs – seeds – reeds) in the ground.
    5.   Farmers earn their money from (agriculture – culture – feature – literature).
    6.   Look at the planes. They are (praying – playing – spraying – staying) the fields from the air.
    7.   Rice is the main (grade – element – substance – ingredient) of tonight’s dish.
    8.  Some people believe that (volcanic – organic – electronic – titanic) fruit and vegetables are better for you than ones grown with chemical fertilizers.
    9.  Some people are worried that genetically- (applied – classified – dried – modified) crops will bring diseases.
    10.  Farmers use chemical (hormones – antiseptics – antibiotics – pesticides) to kill insects which attack their crops.
    11.  My brother wants to study (gene – genetic – genetics – geneticists) at university.
    12. (Ripened – Rotten – Raw – Medium) fruit usually tastes sweet.
    13. This tomato is (ridden – risen – rotten – molten). I can’t eat it.
    14.  Scientists have made genetic (qualifications – modifications – classifications – clarifications) to some vegetables.
    15.   Many people were very hungry after the storm. Some even began to (swerve – serve – starve – observe).
    16.  (Unlike – Alike – Dislike – Look like) his brother, he’s very arrogant.
    17.   He passed the test and (so – either – neither – nor) did his brother.
    18.  I wish the weather (was – were – is – had been) better yesterday.
    19.  I’m (incredibly – unbelievably – fantastically – awfully) sorry for not coming on time.
    20.  (Once – One – Ones – Twice) I’ve found somewhere to live I’ll send you my address.
    21.  Every night before going to bed, I (hope – wish – give – offer) my mother good night.
    22. My brother trained hard for the competition and I (hope – wish – offer – intend) he’ll win.
    23. I (thought – wish – intend – hope) the weather improves soon.
    24. I (insist – hope – wish – intend) we could meet next week.
    25. I wish you (can – will – may – would) try listening to me for once.

Gulliver’s Traveles

Chapter 5 in points
v The giant baby girl has just dropped Gulliver, but he was not hurt as he didn’t hit the floor and landed in a soft blanket that was held around the baby. All in the room laughed including the baby.
            The giant farmer Picked Gulliver up and Gulliver saw his face closely. He
            saw that the man’s hair was like branches of a small tree. Then the man’s
            wife carefully picked Gulliver and carried him to a bed and put a handkerchief
            over his legs.

v Gulliver slept and dreamt of his family so he felt very sad. Gulliver looked around and found that he was alone in the room. The bed was nearly eight meters so Gulliver couldn’t know how to get down to the floor. Gulliver thought about calling the farmer’s wife , but his voice wouldn’t be heard.
            Suddenly Gulliver saw two rats the size of two large dogs. When they saw
            Gulliver they jumped onto the bed and began to attack Gulliver. One of them
             held Gulliver’s sleeves with its teeth. Gulliver tried to defend himself by using
             his knife. He managed to hurt one of them and they escaped.

v The farmer’s wife entered the room , she was surprised to see Gulliver sitting on the bed with a knife. Through signs he tried to explain what had happened .She seemed to understand and took Gulliver into the garden to breathe some fresh air.
v That evening, the farmer’s daughter , Glumdalclitch, who
             was nine year helped her mother to prepare a tiny bed for
            Gulliver. They put the bed on a low shelf inside a cupboard to be safe from any
             rats.  The young girl loved sewing and made Gulliver clothes and dressed him
             like a doll. She made him seven shirts and four pairs of trousers. She also
            taught him  her language by pointing to things and telling him their names. She
            was very  kind and called him Grildrig which means “puppet”

v The farmer’s neighbors had heard about Gulliver so one day, an old man who was a friend of the farmers came to see Gulliver. The farmer put Gulliver on the table in the kitchen to talk to the man.
            There was a conversation between Gulliver and the man. Gulliver did what the
             man asked him , walked up and down and named objects in their languages.
             The old man put on his glasses to see better. When Gulliver looked at the man
             he thought that his eyes looked like two giants moons and Gulliver laughed.
             The old man was angry when Gulliver laughed at him .

v The man suggested that the farmer should make Gulliver work to earn money  if he were clever. The man suggest that the farmer could take Gulliver to the market where people could pay money to see Gulliver. The farmer agreed , but Glumdalclitch was very worried about Gulliver. She was worried that people would pick him up and play with him. They might break his arms or drop him. But her father told her to think of the money they could get from him. Finally she decided to go with her father to be Gulliver’s guard.
v The next day , the farmer and Glumdalclitch put Gulliver in a small wooden box and for the half-hour ride to the market in the town nearby. There were three small holes in the box to help Gulliver breathe and look out . As the horse was fast, Gulliver felt as if he were on a ship in a storm.

v When they arrived at an inn next to the market, Gulliver was put on a table in the largest room inside the inn. The farmer allowed thirty people at a time to come into the room to see Gulliver. Gulliver’s job was to welcome people , walk up and down and answer Glumdalclitch’s questions. People in the market heard about the amazing little man inside the inn and more and more people wanted to see Gulliver.

v During this show Gulliver faced some troubles, A school boy threw a nut at Gulliver. It was the size of a large rock and hit his head so the boy was sent out of the room. Gulliver was shown to twelve different groups of people so when he finished , he was exhausted as a result when he came back , he had to rest for three days.
v Unluckily, he couldn’t rest at the house as the farmer’s neighbors came to see Gulliver , the farmer was happy as people paid him money. From here ,the farmer thought of taking Gulliver to all Cities in the land. He packed all things for a long journey and they set off for the capital on 17th August 1703.

v On their way they stopped at eighteen large towns , many small villages and even private houses. Sometimes , Glumdalclitch pretended that she was tired to help Gulliver rest as he was exhausted. She spend time teaching him languages and got him out to have fresh air , Gulliver saw enormous buildings and five or six rivers that were wider than The Nile.
v After ten weeks they arrived in the capital city which was called Lorbrulgrud the farmer found a hotel in the main street not far from the king’s palace. He hired a room in the hotel with a huge table in the middle where Gulliver could perform. Gulliver could understand the people thanks to Glumdalclitch. The farmer continued to earn more and this made Gulliver exhausted. After a few week, Gulliver lost weight , felt ill and tired. The farmer saw that Gulliver looked like a skeleton and was worried that Gulliver would die.

v Gulliver was Lucky because a servant from the palace came and asked the farmer had to go to show Gulliver to The Queen. When Gulliver saw the queen , he bowed down and said he was pleased to meet her. She smiled and asked Gulliver some questions and said that Gulliver seemed intelligent despite his size. She asked him to live in the palace with the king and her family. Gulliver  said he would be happy if the farmer agreed .

v The farmer agreed as he thought Gulliver was ill and might die and sold Gulliver for a thousand pieces of gold. Now Gulliver belonged to the queen and asked her to keep Glumdalclitch as a teacher and she agreed. The farmer also agreed to leave his daughter as she would get a good job in the palace . When the farmer was leaving Gulliver did not say a word to him because he thought that he only sold him as he thought he would die.

           The queen picked Gulliver up and carried him to the King in another room. 

           When the king saw Gulliver, he looked at him in surprise. He thought Gulliver 
           was a toy , the queen asked Gulliver to tell the king about himself. After the 
           conversation with Gulliver , the king thought  that the farmer had tricked the 
           queen and took the money and looked at Gulliver angrily.