Grammar                            Relative clauses
Relative pronouns
Who / which / whom / that / where / when  / whose
تستخدم ضمائر الوصل لربط جملتين أو تحل محل الفاعل أو المفعول كالاتي  :
  1 Who
 ضمير وصل بمعنى الذي / التي يحل محل الفاعل/ المفعول  العاقل ويتبعه فعل
Ali is the surgeon . Ali  cured the patient.
     Ali is the surgeon who cured the patient.
I thanked my friend . He gave me a present.
     I thanked my friend who gave me a present.
We like our friend Tamer. We live with him.
    We liked our friend Tamer who we live with.
  2 Whom
تحل محل المفعول العاقل ويتبعه فاعل وفعل وممكن ان ياتي قبله حرف جر
This is the girl. He saved the girl.
     This is the girl whom he saved.
The man was honest . I lived with him.
     The man whom I lived with was honest.
     The man with whom I lived was honest.
  3 Which
 تحل محل الفاعل أو المفعول الغير عاقل :
Eman bought a mobile. The mobile was expensive.
Eman bought a mobile which was expensive.
This is the article. Ali wrote it.
    This is the article which Ali wrote.
ملا حظة هامة يمكن استخدام (that )  بدلا من who/ which / whom
Ali is the surgeon that cured the patient.
This is the girl that he saved.
The man that I lived with was honest.
ولكن يوجد بعض الحالات التي يجب ان نستخدم فيها (that)

1 – اذا جاء في الجمله اي من —————–
 all / any / one / some /everything / only / many / much / few / any
– I gave him all news that I had.
-Ahmad is the only pupil that got the full mark.
 2 – مع الدرجة الثالثة من المقارنة  ————-
 -Samy is the tallest man that I have ever seen.
     3 – اذا بدأت الجملة ب     (  it is   /    it was   )
 -It was Graham Bell that invented the telephone.
4 – اذا جاء في الجملة عاقل وغير عاقل ——-
 -Ali wrote about the men and the books that he liked.
 4 Whose
تحل محل الملكية للعاقل وغير العاقل ويتبعها اسم  والملكية ممكن ان تكون
Noun + s  +  noun
      My his her its our your their
-I know a boy . His father is an engineer.
   -I know a boy whose father is an engineer.
-Ayman is a man . Ayman’s father is a doctor.
   -Ayman is a man whose father is a doctor.
  5 Where
 تحل محل المكان ومعناها حيث
-This is the house . We live in the house.
    -This is the house where we live.
-A school is the place. We learn there.
    -A school is the place where we learn
ملا حظة  هامة :
where =  in which / at which
This is the house where we live.
This is the house in which we live.
This is the house whichwe live in.
   6 When
 تحل محل الوقت أو الزمن
-Ramadan is the month . We fast in Ramadan .
   Ramadan is the month when we fast.
-Friday is the day . we don’t go to school on Friday.
   Friday is the day when we don’t go to school.
 ملا حظة هامة :
when = in / on / at which
  July is the month when  he was born.
   July is the month in which he was born.
   July is the month which he was born in.
Relative pronouns Omission                                   حذف ضمائر الوصل
1 – يتم حذف كل من who – which – whom   اذا جاء بعدهم فاعل
This is the man who I met.
   This is the man I met.
2 – يمكن حذف كل من who –  which   في الحالات التالية :
   – اذا جاء بعدهم زمن مستمر وهنا نحذف الضمير و (verb to be )  ويتبقي (v + ing )
The man who isstanding there is my friend.
     The man standing there is my friend.  – اذا جاء بعدهم صيغة مبنى للمجهول وهنا نحذف أيضا الضمير و 
 ( verb to be )  ويبقي التصريف الثالث للفعل .
The thief who wasarrested yesterday, robbed the bank.
      The thief arrested yesterday ,robbed the bank.
  – اذا جاء بعدهم  ( verb to be )  كفعل أساسي وهنا يتم حذف الضمير و ( verb to be )
The boys who arethere, can help us.
      The boys there can help us.
 معلومة :
يوجد نوعان من شبة الجمل الموصولة او ما يسمى ( relative clauses)
 1- النوع الأول يعطينا معلومة هامة او ضرورية عن الشخص / الشيء   أي تحددة 
The woman who helped me is a nurse.
The supermarket which Miss Dina works for sells fresh vegetables.
وفي هذا النوع لا نستخدم ( , )   
2 – النوع الثاني وهو لا يعطينا معلومات هامة او ضروري بل معلومة شائعة
Paris , which is very big, is the capital of France.
Our teacher, who lives in Cairo, is very patient.
  ونلاحظ هنا أنه تم وضع ال ( , )   ولا نستخدم   ( that )
 معلومة هامة
What really   —————— is / was  that——————-
The thing that————— is / was that———————-
He comes late. This annoys his teacher.
What really annoys his teacher is that he comes late.
The thing that annoys his teacher is that he comes late.

Exercise
3 – Choose the correct answer from a , b , c , or d :
1 – The man—————-I met yesterday lent me some money.
a – who              b – which               c – whose               d – where
2 – Here is the book ———–is worth L.E 100.
a – who             b – whose               c – which                d – whom
3 – This is the best ———–I can do for you.
a – which           b – that                  c – when                d – who
4 – Cairo is the city ———I live in .
a – where           b – which                c – when               d – who
5 – That is the man ———–car was stolen.
a – who              b – whose                c – which              d – that
6 – This is the book————by Naguib Mahfouz.
a – written         b – which written       c – which was      d – was written
7 – This is the waiter———————
a – who I tipped him                         b – that I tipped
c – which I tipped                            d- whose I tipped.
8 – This is the villa ————gate it too high.
a – where           b – which               c – whose                d – that
9 – He is the only candidate ——— deserves the job.
a – that             b – which                c – who                  d – whom
10 – Monday is the day ————–we have history.
a – where          b – when                  c – which               d – whose
11 – The man———-the president is my brother.
a – who guarding     b – is guarding    c – guarding    d – which is guarding
12 – The dog ran after the boys———threw stones at it.
a – whom                b – who               c – which         d – when
 13 – This is the fastest car ————I have ever driven.
a – which               b – who              c – what                 d – no pronoun
14 –  ———– really frightened me was the mouse I saw under my bed.
a –  which              b – who               c – what               d – That
15 – This is the writer ———-book was made into a film.
a – who                 b – which              c – whose             d – where
16 – This is the flat ————I live.
a – where             b – which              c – when                d – who
17 – this is the flat ———— I built.
a – where             b – which               c – when               d – whose
18 – The company ———I work for is sending me to Japan on business.
a – which               b – who                 c – what                d – whose
19 – This is Mr. Hamdi ———daughter won a prize.
a – who                 b – which                c – whose             d – what
20 – I would like to see the camera ————you bought yesterday.
a – what               b – who                    c – whose           d – which

please comment if answers wanted                                    الاجابة سنضعها اذا طلب احد من القراء ذلك بتعقيب

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