Grammar                  the IF  third coditional
If + past perfect ماضى تام  +  would/could/might/should +have +p.p.
– If I had (I’d) left home on time, I would (I’d) have caught the school bus.
  I would (I’d) have caught the school bus if I had (I’d) left home on time.
– If you hadn’t gone to Italy, you wouldn’t have met Mario.
   You wouldn’t have met Mario if you hadn’t gone to Italy.
Ÿ تستخدم الحالة الثالثة للتعبير عن تعبر مواقف مستحيلة الحدوث أو التغيير فى الماض أو مواقف كنا نتخيلها فى الماضى كما تعبر عن الندم.
    – If I’drun faster, I’d have won the race.
      = I didn’t run faster so I didn’t win.
    – If you hadn’t gone to Italy, you wouldn’t have met Mario.
       =  You went to Italyand you met Mario.
Ÿ لاحظ  صيغة الاستفهام معif  
   – What would you have done if you had won a lot of money?
Ÿ يمكن أن نستخدم  had  بدلا من  if و يليها فاعل ثم تصريف ثالث
    – If he had playedwell, he would have won.  (Had)
      Had he playedwell, he would have won.
Ÿ فى حالة وجود جملتين فى الماضى نستخدم الحالة الثالثة و نحول النفى إلى  إثبات و العكس
1-  He got up late, so he missed the train. (If)
 Ifhe hadn’t got up late, he wouldn’t have missedthe train.
2-  He didn’t have a map, therefore he was lost. (If)
 If he hadhad a map, he wouldn’t have been lost.
3-  He failed because he was lazy.  (If)
   If he hadn’t beenlazy, he wouldn’t have failed.
4-  He failed, as he didn’t work hard. (If)
   If he had workedhard last year, he wouldn’t have failed the exam.
Ÿ نضع الجملة التى تسبق so / therefore / that’s why  بعد if  كما فى المثالين   1,2   
Ÿ نضع الجملة التى تلى  because / as بعد if  كما فى المثالين 3,4
Ÿ يمكن أن نستخدم  unless بدلا من if  و يأتى بعدها جملة مثبتة
         He worked hard, so he succeeded. (Unless)
    Unlesshe had worked hard, he wouldn’t have succeeded.
Ÿ لاحظ التعبيرات التالية.
If it hadn’t been for  
Without                                 + v.+ ing / noun      +       would have + pp
But for
 
     Without his hard work, he wouldn’t have succeeded. (If it ………)
  –    If it hadn’t been for his hard work, he wouldn’t have succeeded.
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