المضارع التام

Grammar Review
                                                                    
Present perfect tense
زمن المضارع التام
Ÿ يتكون المضارع التام من has / have + p.p.  
  I have seen that film.     
– He has sent me an e-mail this morning.
Ÿ يعبر المضارع التام عن أحداث بدأت فى الماضى و مازالت مستمرا.
  I’ve lived in Cairo since 1999 / for 10 years.  (I’m still living there.)
Ÿ يعبر المضارع التام عن أحداث تمت حديثا. 
  I’ve just finished my first year at university.  
Ÿ يعبر عن حدث تم فى الماضى دون تحديد وقت حدوثه. و فى حالة تحديد وقت حدوثه نستخدم الماضى البسيط.
  She has polished her shoes.  
   – She polishedher shoes yesterday.
Ÿ يستخدم المضارع التام مع الكلمات الآتية:
   already / just / ever / never / yet / since / for / so far / lately / recently
  He has typed five letters sofar.
ملاحظات:
Ÿ يأتى بعد since  زمن يحدد بداية الحدث أما for  يأتى بعدها مدة هذا الحدث.
Ÿ إذا جاء مع since  فعل واحد يكون فى زمن المضارع التام أما إذا جاء مع    sinceفعلين
   فالفعل الذى يلى since  يكون ماضي بسيط و الآخر مضارع تام.
  I haven’t seen him since last week.
  I haven’t seen him since he leftfor Cairo.
The present perfect continuous tense
  زمن المضارع التام المستمر
Ÿ يتكون المضارع التام المستمر من has / have + been + v. + ing
  He has been learning English for five years.
Ÿ يستخدم المضارع التام المستمر لنقول أن شخصا مازال فى منتصف العمل أو أن الحدث لم ينتهى.
 – Ali’s clothes are covered in paint. He has been painting the ceiling.
Ÿ يستخدم المضارع التام المستمر مع  ( ظرف زمنى since / for / all +)  
– He has been working there since he passed his exams.
– He has been workingthere for a long time.
– He has been playing football all day.
Ÿ و غالبا ما تكون هناك كلمة تؤكد على استمرارية الحدث مثل still / now / yet.
– It has been raining for three hours now.
– He has been painting his flat and he hasn’t finished yet.
– He has been paintinghis flat and he’s still painting it.   
     
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