Connectors الروابط

 Grammar                     Connectors
Connectors are words which join sentences or phrases to help us to understand the meaning of the sentences better.
1-    Time connectors
Whenعندما / beforeقبل / afterبعد / sinceمنذ / whileبينما /duringاثناء /as soon asبمجرد ان / untilحتى
– I was watching the match on TV when the phone rang.
-We passed by Tanta before we arrived in Cairo.
-After he had finished his homework, he played a computer game.
-I’ve been playing football since I was eight.
-While I was watching the match on TV, the phone rang.
-During watching the match, the phone rang.
-I telephoned him as soon as I had finished work.
-He couldn’t speak until he was nine.
      2-To show similar and contrasting ideas.
And و / as long asطالما   / butلكن   / howeverومع ذلك although رغم ان /though / even though / as well as / besides بجانب / In addition to   بالاضافة الى/despite برغم/
 in spite of / Not only …but also / not only ..as well
-I wrote a letter and sent it to the company.
-As long as he plays well ,he can join the national team
-I don’t like spinach all all, but my wife does.
-I don’t have much time for hobbies. However, I enjoy photography.
-Although the test was so long, it didn’t take her much time.
-Though I spent a lot of money. I didn’t got what I want.
-He plays football even though he’s over 50
-Please take out your books as well asnotebooks to write
-Besides writing e-mails ,I phoned many of my friends in the feast
-Can you do Exercise C In addition to the Translation in Exercise G.
-Despite his illness, he passed the exam.
-In spite of his illness, he passed the exam.
-Not only I like the way he speaks, but also his character
-Not only have you got top marks for English, you’ve got high marks in French as well .
         3-To show purpose                       ل او لكى
in order that /  To / not to / the purpose of /the purpose behind/ For / so that/ in order to / in order not to / so as to / so as not to
-The purpose behind Martin’s visiting his aunt was to thank her .
-He went shopping to buy some food.
-He went to England in order to improve his English.
-The purpose of Thomas’s leaving early was to attend the meeting .
-We sleep early so that we can get up early      (present)
-He took the cow to the village market so thathe could sell it.   ( past )
(The student is so clever that he can answer all the difficult questions)
                                 فى الجملة السابقة تختلف كليا فهى تعنى لدرجة ان.
-Why did you brake suddenly? So as not to hit that child
.
                 4-To show reasonلبيان السبب       
         Because لان / because of بسبب/due to / owing to /   as /since بما ان
 -She wasn’t at the meeting because she was ill
-Because there was too much sugar in the tea, I couldn’t drink it.   
-Because of bad weather they canceled the trip.
-Due to the bad weather they canceled the trip.
-They canceled the trip owing to the bad weather
-The doctor does not smoke as he is very clever.
 -Sinceyou want to go. We shall go, too.
                5- To show result نتيجة ل          
    As a  result كنتيجة لذلك      /   So   /  therefore لذلك    /consequently       
-It is raining hard outside.As a result you cannot go out.
 -It was raining heavily, so we decided to stay at home.
-Our population is increasing; therefore we need to reclaim more Land.
-It rained heavily last night .Consequently, the streets are all wet.
                6-To show different possibilities لبيان تعدد الاحتمالات
   either …or  اما 00او / neither …. nor لا00 ولا /  only …if     /  unless  ..
-He is either an agent ora sales manager.
 –NeitherTalaat nor Nasser was at the meeting.
 -I’ll onlybuy you a present if you come first
 -I won’t do it unlessyou help me.

                                                                                             from “Papers in Grammar”    by:Zakaria Elshafie
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